LENZ - Mean annual solar radiation

12535
678
Added
27 May 2010

This dataset was first added to LRIS Portal on 27 May 2010.

Mean annual solar radiation data layer used in the creation of Land Environments of New Zealand (LENZ) classification. The classification layers have been made publicly available by the Ministry for the Environment (see data.mfe.govt.nz/layers/?q=LENZ for to access these layers).

Development of surfaces for annual and monthly solar radiation required substantially more data preparation than for the other climate surfaces, reflecting the small number of stations at which solar radiation has traditionally been measured.

Monthly estimates of average daily solar radiation to 1980 were available for 22 meteorological stations, but measurements of sunshine hours were available for a total of 98 stations, including 18 of the stations for which solar radiation measurements were available. To extract as much information as possible from these data, a surface was fitted first that predicted for each month the ratio of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface to that reaching the top of the atmosphere, with the latter calculated from solar geometry equations. In fitting this surface, only the 18 data points where measurements were made of both solar radiation and sunshine hours were used.

In addition to NZMG coordinates, it used as an additional predictor the ratio of measured sunshine hours for each month to the maximum possible sunshine hours given no cloud. This surface was then used to estimate the monthly solar radiation received at each of the 80 sites for which measurements of sunshine hours alone were available. Using a total of 98 sites for which solar radiation data were either measured directly or estimated from sunshine hours, surfaces predicting annual and monthly solar radiation were then fitted. Data describing monthly humidity was used as a surrogate measure of cloudiness to improve the fit of the surface to the underlying data. This also increases the local accuracy of the surface predictions, as the number of meteorological stations used to fit the humidity surface is more than three times greater than the number of sites used to fit the solar radiation surface.

The units for this layer are in MJ/m2/day, higher values signifiy areas that have higher levels of solar radiation. This layer has been multiplied by a factor of 10 (i.e. converted into an integer grid) to save space and make the grids more responsive. A value of 123 is actually 12.3 MJ/m2/day.

Additional details such as the climate station locations used in the creation of the layer and error maps are defined in the attached LENZ Technical Guide.

Layer ID 48095
Data type Grid
Resolution 25.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

LENZ - Slope

8028
858
Added
29 May 2010

This dataset was first added to LRIS Portal on 29 May 2010.

Slope data layer used in the creation of Land Environments of New Zealand (LENZ) classification. The classification layers have been made publicly available by the Ministry for the Environment (see data.mfe.govt.nz/layers/?q=LENZ for to access these layers).

This slope data layer is measured in degrees and was created from a 25-metre digital elevation model (DEM) fitted to 20-m digital contour data derived from New Zealand's NZMS 260 map series using in-house software developed at Landcare Research.

All contours were originally derived photogrammetrically from stereo photographs for final map reproduction at a scale of 1: 50 000. Additional intermediate contours and spot heights were used in generating the DEM where available, while coastlines and shorelines (for lakes greater than 10 ha in extent) were used to constrain the DEM surface around water bodies. The linear interpolation method used to create the DEM threads contours through the cells before interpolation so that any cell intersected by a contour will be given the elevation value of that contour, leading to a high percentage of cells with elevations that are multiples of 20 or 10 in steep areas.

Additional details are defined in the attached LENZ Technical Guide.

Layer ID 48081
Data type Grid
Resolution 25.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

LENZ - Mean annual temperature

7583
826
Added
27 May 2010

This dataset was first added to LRIS Portal on 27 May 2010.

Mean annual temperature data layer used in the creation of Land Environments of New Zealand (LENZ) classification. The classification layers have been made publicly available by the Ministry for the Environment (see data.mfe.govt.nz/layers/?q=LENZ for to access these layers).

Mean annual temperature is recorded in °C. The climate station data used in the development of this climate surface were derived from summaries of climate observations published by the New Zealand Meteorological Service, using data collected over the period from 1950-1980. The resulting data layer was created by coupling a 100 m DEM with a thin-plate spline surface fitted to an irregular network of 300 meteorological stations. The resulting 100 metre layer was then interpolated to 25 metres using bilinear interpolation. Following conventions used in the calculation of climate summary statistics, the values used to fit the surface consisted of the mean of the 12 monthly averages for daily average temperature.

This layer has been multiplied by a factor of 10 (i.e. converted into an integer grid) to save space and make the grids more responsive. A value of 136 is actually 13.6 °C.

Additional details such as the climate station locations used in the creation of the layer and error maps are defined in the attached LENZ Technical Guide.

Layer ID 48094
Data type Grid
Resolution 25.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

LENZ - Annual water deficit

5968
545
Added
30 May 2010

This dataset was first added to LRIS Portal on 30 May 2010.

Annual water deficit data layer used in the creation of Land Environments of New Zealand (LENZ) classification. The classification layers have been made publicly available by the Ministry for the Environment (see data.mfe.govt.nz/layers/?q=LENZ for to access these layers).

Based on a water balance model using monthly estimates of mean daily temperature, mean daily solar radiation, and mean rainfall, this layer is used as an indicator of soil dryness. The layer calculated as the sum of any deficits between rainfall and potential evaporation calculated using the method of Priestley and Taylor (1972). The resulting 100 metre layer (The temperature, solar radiation and rainfall layers were all 100m) was then interpolated to 25 metres using bilinear interpolation.

The climate station data used in the development of this climate surface were derived from summaries of climate observations published by the New Zealand Meteorological Service, using data collected over the period from 1950-1980 The data layer was derived from surfaces fitted to monthly data describing daily average temperature, daily solar radiation and monthly rainfall. The rainfall surface was fitted using NZMG coordinates, elevation, and a model describing relationships between topography and westerly winds.

Having derived the 36 input climate layers, an empirical model was first used to calculate the monthly potential evaporation from the monthly estimates of solar radiation and temperature. These estimates of evaporation were then compared with the monthly rainfall estimates. Where the rainfall exceeded evaporation, the monthly deficit was assumed to be zero, but where monthly evaporation exceeded monthly rainfall, the shortfall was accumulated through the year to derive an estimate of the annual water deficit.

The units for this layer are in mm, higher values are areas that have a larger deficit.

Additional details such as the climate station locations used in the creation of the layer are defined in the attached LENZ Technical Guide.

Layer ID 48097
Data type Grid
Resolution 25.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

Mean minimum temperature of the coldest month data layer used in the creation of Land Environments of New Zealand (LENZ) classification. The classification layers have been made publicly available by the Ministry for the Environment (see data.mfe.govt.nz/layers/?q=LENZ for to access these layers).

Mean minimum temperature of the coldest month is recorded in °C. The climate station data used in the development of this climate surface were derived from summaries of climate observations published by the New Zealand Meteorological Service, using data collected over the period from 1950-1980. Estimates of the mean minimum temperature in July, the coldest month of winter, were derived from a surface fitted to monthly estimates of mean daily temperatures. The resulting data layer was created by coupling a 100 m DEM with a thin-plate spline surface fitted to an irregular network of 346 meteorological stations. The resulting 100 metre layer was then interpolated to 25 metres using bilinear interpolation.

This layer has been multiplied by a factor of 10 (i.e. converted into an integer grid) to save space and make the grids more responsive. A value of 53 is actually 5.3 °C.

Additional details such as the climate station locations used in the creation of the layer and error maps are defined in the attached LENZ Technical Guide.

Layer ID 48092
Data type Grid
Resolution 25.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

LENZ - Soil drainage

4794
381
Added
28 May 2010

This dataset was first added to LRIS Portal on 28 May 2010.

Drainage data layer used in the creation of Land Environments of New Zealand (LENZ) classification. The classification layers have been made publicly available by the Ministry for the Environment (see data.mfe.govt.nz/layers/?q=LENZ for to access these layers).

This data layer described the internal drainage of soils. The classification used in the creation of this layer was developed as part of the diagnostic features used in conjunction with the New Zealand Soil Classification, and was defined in terms of the soil attributes that develop under different drainage conditions. Five classes of drainage, ranging from Very Poor (1) through to Good/Well drained (5). The class defined as "0" signifies areas where there are no soil attributes recorded (i.e. high peaks of the Southern Alps).

Additional details such as discussion about the accuracy and reliability of the LENZ soil layers and the technical definitions of the categories in this layer are defined in the attached LENZ Technical Guide.

Layer ID 48085
Data type Grid
Resolution 25.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

LENZ - Induration (Soil Hardness)

4362
180
Added
30 May 2010

This dataset was first added to LRIS Portal on 30 May 2010.

Induration data layer used in the creation of Land Environments of New Zealand (LENZ) classification. The classification layers have been made publicly available by the Ministry for the Environment (see data.mfe.govt.nz/layers/?q=LENZ for to access these layers).

Induration is a measure of how hard the soil is and is quantified by how much force is needed to break the soil. The data defines the induration based on the soil information (from the NZLRI) and the mapped parent material. This induration data layer is differentiated into five classes, Non-indurated (Class 1), Very weakly indurated (2), Weakly indurated (3), Strongly indurated (4), Very strongly (5). The class defined as "0" signifies areas where there are no soil attributes recorded (i.e. high peaks of the Southern Alps). Additional details such as discussion about the accuracy and reliability of the LENZ soil layers and the technical definitions of the categories in this layer are defined in the attached LENZ Technical Guide.

Layer ID 48084
Data type Grid
Resolution 25.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

LENZ - Monthly water balance ratio

4138
281
Added
27 May 2010

This dataset was first added to LRIS Portal on 27 May 2010.

Monthly water balance ratio data layer used in the creation of Land Environments of New Zealand (LENZ) classification. The classification layers have been made publicly available by the Ministry for the Environment (see data.mfe.govt.nz/layers/?q=LENZ for to access these layers).

This layer differentiates between regions that have minimal water deficit, but vary markedly in the total amount of rainfall they receive. Based on a water balance model using monthly estimates of mean daily temperature, mean daily solar radiation, and mean rainfall. This layer is the annual average of the monthly ratios of rainfall to potential evaporation calculated using the method of Priestley and Taylor (1972). The resulting 100 metre layer (The temperature, solar radiation and rainfall layers were all 100m) was then interpolated to 25 metres using bilinear interpolation.

The climate station data used in the development of this climate surface were derived from summaries of climate observations published by the New Zealand Meteorological Service, using data collected over the period from 1950-1980 The data layer was derived from surfaces fitted to monthly data describing daily average temperature, daily solar radiation and monthly rainfall. The rainfall surface was fitted using NZMG coordinates, elevation, and a model describing relationships between topography and westerly winds. Having derived the 36 input climate layers, an empirical model was first used to calculate the monthly potential evaporation from the monthly estimates of solar radiation and temperature. These estimates of evaporation were then compared with the monthly rainfall estimates. To calculate the monthly water balance ratio, the ratio of rainfall to evaporation was computed for each month, and then the average of these twelve ratios was calculated.

Additional details such as the climate station locations used in the creation of the layer are defined in the attached LENZ Technical Guide.

Layer ID 48093
Data type Grid
Resolution 25.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

LENZ - Winter solar radiation

4026
292
Added
28 May 2010

This dataset was first added to LRIS Portal on 28 May 2010.

Winter solar radiation data layer used in the creation of Land Environments of New Zealand (LENZ) classification. The classification layers have been made publicly available by the Ministry for the Environment (see data.mfe.govt.nz/layers/?q=LENZ for to access these layers).

Winter solar radiation reaches a minimum in June, the month when the sun is lowest in the sky and day lengths are at their shortest, hence the layer is the monthly average solar radiation layer calculated for the month of June. Estimates of winter solar radiation across New Zealand were derived from a surface fitted to monthly solar radiation estimates for 98 sites as described for mean annual solar radiation.

Data describing monthly humidity was used as a surrogate measure of cloudiness to improve the fit of the surface to the underlying data. This also increases the local accuracy of the surface predictions, as the number of meteorological stations used to fit the humidity surface is more than three times greater than the number of sites used to fit the solar radiation surface. For more details on the creation of these layers see the mean annual solar radiation layer.

The units for this layer are in MJ/m2/day, higher values signify areas that have higher levels of solar radiation. This layer has been multiplied by a factor of 10 (i.e. converted into an integer grid) to save space and make the grids more responsive. A value of 53 is actually 5.3 MJ/m2/day.

Additional details such as the climate station locations used in the creation of the layer and error maps are defined in the attached LENZ Technical Guide.

Layer ID 48096
Data type Grid
Resolution 25.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed

LENZ - Soil particle size

3960
280
Added
27 May 2010

This dataset was first added to LRIS Portal on 27 May 2010.

Particle size data layer used in the creation of Land Environments of New Zealand (LENZ) classification. The classification layers have been made publicly available by the Ministry for the Environment (see data.mfe.govt.nz/layers/?q=LENZ for to access these layers).

The data defines the average particle size based on the soil information (from the NZLRI) and the mapped parent material. This particle size data layer is differentiated into five classes, silt and clay (Class 1), Sand (2), Gravel (3), Coarse to very coarse gravel (4), Boulders to massive (5). The class defined as "0" signifies areas where there are no soil attributes recorded (i.e. high peaks of the Southern Alps).

Additional details such as discussion about the accuracy and reliability of the LENZ soil layers and the technical definitions of the categories in this layer are defined in the attached LENZ Technical Guide.

Layer ID 48082
Data type Grid
Resolution 25.000m
Services Raster Query API, Catalog Service (CS-W), data.govt.nz Atom Feed
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